Plantar Fasciitis / Fasciopathy
The plantar fascia is a strong band of tissue that runs along the sole of the foot. Sometimes, the plantar fascia can become injured from multiple factors, such as over use, poor foot wear, change to a high impact activity etc. Initial treatment plan may be RICE, stretches and strengthening and correcting abnormal biomechanics using an insole / orthotic.
This is usually a bony projection, which can stick out into the soft tissues. This can cause symptoms when weight-bearing. A good supportive and a cushioned footwear is ideal. An appropriate insole / orthotic would offload / deflect the pressure from the spur.
Achilles Tendonitis / Tendonopathy
The Achilles Tendon is a thick and very strong tendon. However, the sheath around the tendon which helps it to move, can become inflamed and is known as peri-tendonitis. If the Achilles tendon becomes damaged, it can be very painful to weight-bear. Tendon do not have a very good blood supply and can take a long time to heal. In that time, it can degenerate and often termed as tendonopathy.
Generally, repetitive stress with poor shock absorbency can cause a stress fracture. At this stage, it is not fractured, but due to the stress, the bone is weak and on the verge of becoming fractured. Initial treatment plan may involve rest / boot to offload and protect, correcting the foot biomechanics and footwear advice.
Repetitive rubbing of your heels against the counter of the shoe, can cause bony thickening and soft tissue irritation. Treatment will depend on the severity of the condition. Either a change of footwear or surgery may be required. A true Haglund's deformity is diagnosed via x-ray imaging.
This condition is usually seen in active children, around the age of 10. It is the inflammation of the growth plate of the heel, which is aggravated with the increased stress placed on the soft tissues, which pulls on the growth plate.