Lateral / Medial Ligament Injury
Ligaments are a special type of soft tissue that connects bone to bone. They help control and reduce excessive movement and provide stability of a joint. Outside (lateral) ligaments are known as the lateral collateral ligaments. Lateral ligament injury are more common, such as an ankle inversion sprain.
Inside (medial) of the ankle ligaments are known as the deltoid ligaments. Injury to these are usually quite rare.
Ligament ankle injury occurs when the foot is pushed beyond its range of motion, causing the ligament to overstretch, tear or rupture.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
A major nerve (tibial nerve) to the foot passes through this tarsal tunnel and splits into a number of branches. This nerve can become trapped within the tunnel. Initial treatment plan may be to address the biomechanics and footwear.
Sinus Tarsi Syndrome
The sinus tarsi is a small cylindrical cavity/canal which runs into the ankle under the talus bone. Ligaments, blood vessels and nerves pass through the sinus tarsi. Symptoms of persistent pain, tenderness and instability may exhibit on the outside aspect of the hindfoot, following an ankle sprain, repetitive strain from sports or abnormal foot biomechanics i.e. excessive flat feet.
Peroneal Tendon Injury/Overuse
The peroneal muscle splits into two tendons (brevis and longus), which run behind the outside ankle bone and insert on the base of the 5th metatarsal and medial cuneiform and first metatarsal bone. The role of these tendon is to help move the foot outwards. This injury is more common in running athletes, particularly endurance running and sports that involve repetitive ankle motion. Symptoms may involve pain, swelling and tenderness on the hindfoot. Excessive strain on the tendon, causes it to overstretch, tear or in severe cases, rupture.